“No [doubt] she’ll freak.  I’m just contemplating the =IF()’s…”

-Marcellus Wallace, obvious master of the spreadsheet arts

I can’t believe I didn’t say this last time:  =CALCULATE() is a lot like =SUMIF(), which is a function that Excel gurus know and love…  and sometimes hate :)  SUMIF and its cousins like COUNTIF and the plural SUMIFS are often indispensable.  When you want to perform an aggregation on a table, but just include rows that meet a certain criteria, the SUMIF family is often where you turn.

But SUMIF has a few limitations.  First of all, the conditional syntax is kinda awkward.  Second, if you want an aggregation that is not covered by the functions provided, you are out of luck – there is no MAXIF, for instance.  And you cannot use any of these functions inside a PivotTable, which, when you think about it, would be one of the most useful places to employ them.

=CALCULATE() fixes all of those limitations, and then does things you wouldn’t think to ask for 🙂

### The syntax of CALCULATE()

=CALCULATE(<aggregate expression>, <filter1>, <filter2>, … )

<aggregate expression>

This is basically anything that would itself define a measure.  The following are all legal examples:

1. SUM([Column])
2. SUM([Column1]) / MAX([Column2])
3. The name of another measure that’s already been defined

Pretty cool huh?  Literally you can CALCULATE on any aggregate expression you can dream up – even another measure that you defined before, like my “Avg Sales per Day” measure from the temperature mashup demo.

<filter1>, <filter2>, …

And then you can conditionally evaluate that aggregate expression based on any number of filters you’d like to apply.

Valid examples:

1. [ColumnName] = “Foo”
2. [ColumnName] >= 6
3. ALL([ColumnName])

Which is to say, that the syntax is exactly what you’d expect it to be 🙂

### The power of ALL() is truly revolutionary

That ALL() thing is pretty unexpected though – it lets you create measures like “All-Time Sales” – if you set ALL([Date]) for instance, the resulting measure will respect all of the filters in the pivot table…  but not any filters on Date, meaning that even in a pivot sliced to Year = 2009, you could still see a measure that showed Sales for all years combined.  Useful in some cases for sure.

Of course, you can also create a CALCULATE expression that employs ALL() as a filter, then use that CALCULATE as the denominator of a measure.  Something like:

=SUM(SalesTable[Sales]) /

CALCULATE(SUM(SalesTable[Sales]), ALL(SalesTable[Sales]))

Would give you a measure like “Percentage of All-Time Sales.”

ALL() warrants its own post, and perhaps multiple posts, so I will revisit this later.

But in the meantime, back to football 🙂

#### Rob Collie

One of the founding engineers behind Power Pivot during his 14-year career at Microsoft, and creator of the world’s first cloud Power Pivot service, Rob is one of the foremost authorities on self-service business intelligence and next-generation spreadsheet technology.

## This Post Has 40 Comments

1. […] CALCULATE – the big Kahuna.  A version of SUMIFS that I can use in a pivot measure to remove, alter, or override pivot filters and just aggregate the source rows that I want. […]

2. […] (If you need a refresher on CALCULATE, which is probably the most useful function in all of DAX, check out this post.) […]

3. […] than standalone Excel, and it will actually seem easier than normal Excel.  Check out the CALCULATE function and you will see what I […]

4. Anindita says:

Nice and educational

5. […] CALCULATE, ALL, and maybe even SUMX (in that order!) before digging into the DAX chapters.  The book […]

7. Michael says:

As an MDXer, I wouldn’t say that ALL() is revolutionary in terms of functionality, but it is revolutionary in the regard that it allows mere mortals to do MDX style calculations. Power Pivot in general is great, because the less data cubes I have to make for quick exploratory projects, the better.

1. Agreed, it is revolutionary from an Excel standpoint, which means it’s revolutionary to millions 🙂

But yes, not to MDX pros such as yourself 🙂

8. how do you write Calculate if you have a condition for example all sales in month of december?

9. How to be a calculated column

SELECT SUM (value) FROM table GROUP BY column

1. Alakazaam-infromtiaon found, problem solved, thanks!

10. junaidkhan says:

sir i want to know next day adj closing of dax plz tell me simple calculation

11. Gunshy says:

Hi,
Need help.
How can I conditionally calculate a table? for example, If Table[SourceType]=”SALES” then SUM(Table[Quantity]) else CALCULATE(Table[Quantity],DATESBETWEEN(DateTable[Date],DATE(1900,1,1),LASTDATE(DateTable[Date]))) ?

Thanks

1. Gunshy says:

The Table[SourceType] identifies the record if it is a Sales entry or an Inventory record. each type of record must be calculated differently.

1. Gunshy says:

Here is the sample data:

CustomerCode Date Quantity SourceType
STORE A 1/1/2012 100 SALES
STORE A 1/1/2012 50 INVTY
STORE B 1/2/2012 100 INVTY
STORE A 1/3/2012 -100 INVTY
STORE A 1/3/2012 100 SALES

2. powerpivotpro says:

OK I think I would write this as two measures:

M1 = CALCULATE(SUM(Table[Qty]), Table[Type]=”SALES”)
M2 = CALCULATE(SUM(Table[Qty]), Table[Type]=”INV”, DATESBETWEEN(…)

Then you could use the measures separately. Or if for some reason you wanted the two recombined into one measure, you could write a third measure:

M3 = [M1] + [M2]

I don’t know why it would make sense to add Sales to Inventory (probably doesn’t), but just in case, that’s how I would do it.

1. Gunshy says:

In the original structure of the data, sales and inventory data are in different table. But since that the Power View Map have only one measure, I need both entry types into one table.

do you have any suggestions on how I can achieve this?

Thanks.

12. AK says:

Hi I would like to set up a measure that allows me to calculate moving annual sales. Which formula should I use?

1. powerpivotpro says:

Hi there AK! Type “moving average” into the search box here on the site and you will find a couple starting points I think 🙂

13. eric says:

Hugely helpful post. Thank you very much.

How would this formula change if you wanted to sum column A if column B was “cats” OR “dogs” for example. Is there any way to do this without creating Measure 1 and Measure 2, and then combining the two?

-Eric

1. powerpivotpro says:

The || operator is what you need.

Table[column] = “blue” || Table[column] = “red”

1. eric says:

You are a wonderful human being. Thank you. I”l let you know if I have any issues. Thanks again.

14. Michael says:

alright, so I have one, what if I have a long list of work centers, and I want to sum those up individually by a date? I was thinking it could be done by adding a slicer to a cube set, but do not think that works…

15. Michael,

Wouldn’t you just put the Work Centers on the rows in your pivot table, then feed the date as a filter to CALCULATE? Or is the problem that you want the date to be something that the user can choose?

Tim

1. Michael says:

something they can choose as well. I can pull the data apart when turning the pivot table into calcs, then putting all the filters in with a time slider, but would still like to add a calc field within PP to pull data like a sumifs formula, where instead of stating the actual (= “this”, or “this”) then calc, but rather if (thier choice) and (thier date choice) would gve the result.

16. ramiro says:

Michael,

i have a problem, i made two measures, sales and budget and then made a substraction, then i get values positives and negatives, after that i want to sum only the negative values, but i cant. Each line is fine, but at the moment of the total sum, the result is wrong because give me the diference between totals. How i can solve this problem, I apreciate any help. Thanks.

17. Michael says:

You may want to try and use the data from the PowerPivot into a cube formula and then put those formulas into a table to resolve. Once you have the data into a pivot table (use a limited amount because you can calc in the rest), change the pivot table to calcs (convert), then add the sales and budget in with CUBEMEMBER and CUBEVALUE into a table like report.

18. Mejd says:

Hi,

sorry to tag onto an old thread. I’ve searched the site (and others) and can’t seem to find a solution.

In my table I have hospital activity. I can see on one row that patient X had an emergency admission (defined by a value in a different column for that row) on a certain date. I can also see on a different row that the same patient X on that same date had an activity in an inpatient department (ie their emergency activity is one row, and the resultant treatment is in another row). What I would like to do is create a calculated column that says, if this row is an emergency admission then return the resultant department code – which can only be matched by patient ID and admit date.

What I need is something that says:
if AE_disposal=1 [this means emergency admission]
find Specialty_code by ID and DATE
where ID and DATE match ID and DATE of AE_disposal=1

thanks
Mejd

19. Hi there

I’m exploring Powerpivot DAX formulae and its ability to do the equivalent of array formulae in Excel using dynamic/cell based criteria.

I’d like to do the equivalent of
1. SUMIFS
2. AVERAGEIFS
3. COUNTIFS.

I’ve scanned through previous posts, but cant seem to find the syntax that you would you use for the calculated columns in a Powerpivot Data Model?
i.e – what is the syntax when the criteria changes with each row in the table?

Example:

Column1 Column2 SUMIF using COL1 as Criteria AVERAGEIF using Col1 as criteria
A 2 3 1.5
B 3 6 3
C 4 8 4
A 1 3 1.5
B 3 6 3
C 4 8 4

1. powerpivotpro says:
20. I am experiencing hard problems with simple CALCULATE function.
I dont understand what is wrong with it. Struck on this problem for 5 hours already, and cant find solution. Even, i dont know the problem…
Here the problem picture – http://s1.postimg.org/w036u7h73/problem.jpg

PLease, tell me what am i doing wrong??

I so much nervoius right now… =(

21. Hi guys,

I like the blog. Please can you update the article so that where you have “filter1″,”filter2”, etc, that you make clear that these use the FILTER function? On Excel 2010, using CALCULATE without a FILTER function doesn’t work.

Doesn’t work:
=CALCULATE(SUM([Something]),[ColumnName] = “Foo”

Does work:
=CALCULATE(SUM([SomethingOnTableOne],FILTER([TableOne],[SomethingElseOnTableOne]= “Foo”))

1. Avi Singh says:

Zambino, I can attest that it ABSOLUTELY works in Excel 2010. We run training using both Excel 2010 and Excel 2013 and I have demoe’ed that specific usage numerous times using Excel 2010. There is something else going on. Your best best may be to post a question on http://forum.powerpivotpro.com/forums

22. Vikas Gautam says:

Hello,
Is there any expert who can change this normal formula to DAX formula.
=AVERAGEIFS([ValuesToAvg],[RouteCol],\$A19,[DatesCol],”>=” & H19-30,[DatesCol], “<" & H19 )

\$A19 is the one route which changes when dragged downwards.
\$H19 is date relative date for each row which changes when dragged down.

Actually I want moving average of past 30 days for each route seperately(a column having different routes).

23. Dean says:

I can’t tell you how many times a day I am hitting this site for guidance. This is the first time I haven’t been able to find an answer.

I have filtered results in a power pivot table that not only do I need to compare, but I need to be able to use the comparison in later calucluted measures. For example, I send a catalog to a list and withhold a control group to later calculate how much “lift” the catalog provided above what would have happened if nothing was done. In a single column (“[Control_Group]”), each recipient is flagged if they are in the control group (“control”). Recipients not in the control have a blank value in the control group column.

DAX formulas makes it easy to summarize response rate, revenue, AOV, etc. for each group. What I am not able to do is find a DAX formula that can calculate the lift; that is, the difference in the amount of revenue each group generated per member. Revenue per member, yes. But not the difference. At least not as a calculdated measure that allows me to use it in additional summary calculations.

The pivot table would look like this:

Catalog Count Orders Revenue AOV Revenue_per_person Lift* Total_Lift* Cost_of_Catalog Net_Profit*
Blank 1000 90 9000 100 9 1 1000 600 400
control 100 10 800 80 8 0 0 0 800

Each asterisked measure relies on being able to reference the difference between the values under Revenue_per_person.

I have tried something like this: Lift:=Revenue_per_person – CALCULATE(Revenue/Count,ALL(Customer[Control_Group],FILTER(Customer,Customer[Control_Group]=”control”))

But row context in the “Blank” row already has no rows with “control group” in the [Control_Group] column, so the result is zero.

Instead of the ALL command, what I need is the ability to ignore that one row context (“Blank()”) and substitute it with another row context (“control group”). How can I do that?

Or do I need to take another approach?

1. Krissy says:

Hi Dean,

I think that you are close. I think maybe break up what you are trying to do into smaller steps.

You can try this and see if it gives you the results you need…

I’m using “Customer” as the table name. I am using “Catalog” as the Control/Not Control field name. “Revenue” as the revenue and “Count” as the count (I am trying to use the same names for the table/columns as you provided in your example).

[Revenue_For_Only_Control] = CALCULATE(SUM(‘Customer'[Revenue]), ALL(‘Customer'[Revenue] ), ‘Customer'[Catalog] = “Control” )

This should get the total Revenue (\$800) for the Control population for both the Control & Non-Control row breakout in the pivot table.

Then you could do the same thing for the Count measure.

[Count_For_Only_Control] =CALCULATE(COUNTROWS(‘Customer’),ALL( ‘Customer'[Count] ), ‘Customer'[Catalog] = “Control” )

This should get the total Count (100) for the Control population for both the Control & Non-Control row breakout in the pivot table.

Do the calculation of (\$800/100) by using the DIVIDE formula to the (8) value.

[Avg_Cust_Rev_Only_Control] = DIVIDE(Revenue_For_Only_Control,Count_For_Only_Control)

And then get the final Lift calculation by doing the subtraction.

I hope that helps!

24. Dean says:

Thanks, Krissy. I’ll give it a try.

25. Hi Rob,

For using CACLCULATE FUNCTION, is it mandatory that Tables should be related?